Minggu, 08 Juli 2012

DUTCH HERITAGE IN CILACAP CITY

Dutch Heritage in Cilacap City


Kerkop Cilacap is a complex grave for Dutch or today is Grave for Christian (Kuburan Kristen Cilacap)
In this photo we could see a grave for pirate attack.
I didn't find documents from Dutch / European who their grave in Cilacap city.
I only found The History of Fortress at Cilacap. (Java) in English from Dr. Soedarmadji in Purwokerto.
Bellow are some information about history of The Development in Cilacap in the era of Dutch Government.
You are welcome to correct or to complete if there is mistake on this article.
Thank you so much for you all to complete history of Tjilatjap.

History of The Fortress at Cilacap. (Java)
1819
As early as 1819 the Dutch government recognized that the harbour of Cilacap was the best harbour on the South Coast of Java and might be a point where a European power (e.g. England) could attack. In that year 30 artillerist were stationed at Nusakambangan.
1830
In 1830 there were stationed at Nusa Kambangan 21 artillerist, 64 infanterist and 1 medical officer. Till 1830 Cilacap was government by the Sultan of Yogyakarta, in 1830 it was ceded by the Sultan to the Dutch government. Nusa Kambangan was already under Dutch rule since 1705.
King Willem I of the Netherlands decides that yearly 1.000.000 gulden should be spent on the defence of Java against an overseas enemy. Probably around this time construction start of the fortresses Karang Bolong and Banju Njappa on Nusa Kambangan.
1844
General Major von Gagern travel around Java to study its defence against an overseas enemy. He recommends that Surabaya, Semarang, Jakarta and Cilacap should get fortresses. He found the two batteries at Nusa Kambangan in sufficient a new fortress should be built on the headland (landtong) of Cilacap.
1850
Severe malaria epidemic in the district Cilacap, 80% of the population sick.
1850
14 cannons (80 pounders) arrive from Holland in Surabaya. They are intended for Cilacap or Nusakambangan
1853
King William III of the Netherlands sign a royal degree about the defensive of Java ( 2 August 1853). This includes the recommendation of General Major von Gagern.
In Cilacap a fortress will be built on the headland with on the southside a battery of guns for coastal defence. 2 peace time 102 artillerist to in time of war 170 artillerist.
The north side of this fortress will be defended by an earthen parepet with a moat, a forbidden circle and with bambu duri.
Further more defence works on Nusakambangan abd observation at Banteng Mati and Cimiring (both at Nusakambangan).
1855
Karang Bolong. Battery of 14 guns of 80 pounders ready. Banteng Mati since out of date (condemmed) guns. Works in progress on Banju Njappa and Cimiring.
Cilacap headland. Plan for a fortress are being made. Houses for officers ready (the most beautifully on Java). Barrack and Hospital are made of bambu.
There is a continuous shortage of labor in the Cilacap area. The area is thinly populated. Reluctantly the government decides to use convict labor to supplement the free labor.
1856
In Cilacap a jail made of stone and brick for 300 concict labour in built, on Karang Bolong (Nusa Kambangan) a jail made of bambu for 300 convict labour is bulit.
1857
A bupati is installed in Cilacap for the first time
1853
Topographical data for making a map of the Cilacap area are ready
1861
In 1861 and 1862 work is done draining marshes around Cilacap.
1861
On the headland of Cilacap are collected building materials, bricks, wheelbarrows, mortar mixers. Workship and sheld area ready. Quarter for 500 freelabour and 350 convict labour area ready.
First part of the south wall of the fortress is started.
A plan is made for a military road from Cilacap to Priangan.
1862
Malaria in Cilacap, slow progress on the fortress. Nusakambangan closed for civilian use, population evacuated.
1863
1000 wheelbarrows and 8 mortar mixers are brought for Cilacap.
1864
Final drawings for complete fortress are ready.
1869
Fortress in Cilacap, Southern part ready, Northern West part under construction, North East part not yer started.
1870
Regular steam boat service between Cilacap and Jakarta started.
1874
The commander of the army in the Indies (supported by the Governor General) wants to make the fortress strong on the North side against a prible attack by a foreign army landed in the Turtle Bay (Teluk Penyu) North of Cilacap.The minister in The Hague (Holland) wants to economize and to safe money. The final outcome is that the fortress will be finished in a simplified versions, much less easemates and much len underground shelters than the army wanted.
In the period there was much difference in opinion among the expects how Java could be defended. Three defferent proposals were:
- By fortresses
- By a mobile army
- By a navy
Plan for a small supporting fortress at Cibelok in Nusakambangan were cancelled.
Plan for a dam on a sandbank east of Cilacap fortress were canceled.
Also barriers against torpedoes were cancelled.
1877
Distribution of quinine among the population to cure malaria.
1877
Three cannons of 24 cm caliber arrive at Cilacap for the coastal defense battery.
1878
Three more cannons of 24 caliber arrive.
1879
Fortress is more on Len ready. Malaria in Cilacap district.
1883
Minor damage to the fortress caused by a tidal wave caused by the eruption of Krakatau.
1880
Aumament of the position Cilacap (including Karang Bolong) and Banju Nyappa on Nusakambangan.
6 cannons iron, rifled 24 cm on coastal carriage
14 cannons bronze, rifled 8 cm on field carriage
16 cannons bronze, rifled 12 cm on wall carriage
20 cannons iron, smooth bore 9 cm on wall carriage
4 mortars bronze 29 cm
8 mortars bronze 20 cm
6 mortars Cochoorn 12 cm
In these years Cilacap was the largest, most modern and most heavily armed fortress in Indonesia.
The garrison was one battalion of infantry and one company of artillery, total 442 men, 214 European and 228 Indonesians.
1884
Malaria in Cilacap alow among the army. Garrison reduce from 442 men to 336 men. Remaining soldiers get more and better food. Drainage ditches are dug.
Soldiers get better coats (They have to stand guard in the rani).
1888
Malaria in Cilacap
All soldiers are sent away, The infantry to Kedung Kebo near Purworejo, the artillery to Salatiga. Railway line between Cilacap and Yogyakarta is finished.
83 Prajurits are locally soldiers recruited to maintain and guard the fort.
The army can rapidly return via the railway in case of war.
1892
The fortress in Cilacap and on Nusakambangan are considered no eless. Java will be defended by the navy and 2 mobile army. Guns go in storage. Nusakambangan open to civilian.
1901
The army experiments with mosquitos nets (Klambu, Experiments are wuere full).
1905
The army returns to Cilacap. One company of infantry, one detachment of artillery. The armament of the furter Cilacap is much simpler and smaller than in 1880.For coastal defence the army now uses 15 cm rapid firing guns.
1894
Railway link between Cicalengka and Maos ready. One can travel from Cilacap via Bandung to Jakarta by train.
1908
Nusakambangan becomes a penal colony where convict labor works on a rubber plantation. The army does not return to Nusakambangan.
1930
Artillery and infantry leave Cilacap. One company Marcuse stationed in Cilacap.
1935-1938
No military personnel in Cilacap.
1939-1940
War breaks out in Europe. Military come back to Europe.
1942
In the fort are stationed 2 coastal defense guns of 15 cm kaliber (long 40). The commanding center for the detachment Cilacap. A radio station for ship. Two stores for seamines.
1942
4 March harbour of Cilacap bombarded by 15 Japanese plane (1 hour) 5 March bombarded by 27 planes during 2 hours. 450 people were killed (mainly civilians). Most gride in the harbor were destroyed, many ships sunk.

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